The Raspberry Pi is a small, barebones computer developed by The Raspberry Pi Foundation, a UK charity, with the intention of providing low-cost computers and free software to students. On the software side of things, there are currently three Linux-based operating systems supported by the Raspberry Pi.
Raspberry Pi is a credit card-sized computer powered by the Broadcom BCM2835 system-on-a-chip (SoC). This SoC includes a 32-bit ARM1176JZFS processor, clocked at 700MHz, and a Videocore IV GPU. It also has 256MB of RAM in a POP package above the SoC. The Raspberry Pi is powered by a 5V micro USB AC charger or at least 4 AA batteries. While the ARM CPU delivers real-world performance similar to that of a 300MHz Pentium 2, the Broadcom GPU is a very capable graphics core capable of hardware decoding several high definition video formats.
Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board. To do so you use the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring), and the Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.
The software, too, is open-source, and it is growing through the contributions of users worldwide.The Arduino software is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users. It runs on Mac, Windows, and Linux.
PIC microcontrollers are a family of specialized microcontroller chips produced by Microchip Technology in Chandler, Arizona. The acronym PIC stands for "peripheral interface controller," A microcontroller is a compact microcomputer designed to govern the operation of embedded systems in motor vehicles, robots, office machines, medical devices, mobile radios, vending machines, home appliances, and various other devices. A typical microcontroller includes a processor, memory, and peripherals.
Key features include wide availability, low cost, ease of reprogramming with built-in EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory), an extensive collection of free application notes, abundant development tools, and a great deal of information available on the Internet. The PIC microcontrollers often appear under the brand name PICmicro.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it.
Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. They are also used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes.
Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power.
The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power AC to DC (rectifier) DC to AC (inverter) DC to DC (DC-to-DC converter) AC to AC (AC-to-AC converter)
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
These technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in dangerous environments (including bomb detection and de-activation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive.